Publications


[94]  X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Sulfoxides

Vogt, L.I.; Cotelesage, J.J.H.; Dolgova, N.V.; Titus, C.J.; Sharifi, S.; George, S.J.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.  RSC Adv. 2020, 10, 26229-26238

[93]  Feasibility of Laboratory-Based EXAFS Spectroscopy with Cryogenic Detectors

George S. J.; Carpenter M. H.; Friedrich S.; Cantor R.; J. Low. Temp. Phys. 2020200, 479-484

[92]  EXAFS Reveals Two Mo Environments in the Nitrogenase Iron-Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthetic Protein NifQ

George S. J.; Hernandez J. A.; Jimenez-Vicente E.; Echavarri-Erasun C.; Rubio L. M. Chem. Comm. 20165211811-11814

[91]  Interaction of Gd-DTPA with phosphate and phosphite:  Toward the reaction intermediate in Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
Gao, S.; George S. J.; Zhou Z-H. Dalton Trans. 2016, 45, 5388–5394
 
[90]  Structural Characterization of CO-Inhibited Mo-Nitrogenase by Combined Application of NRVS, EXAFS and DFT: New Insights into the Effects of CO Binding and the Role of the Interstitial Atom
Scott A. D.; Pelmenschikov, V.; Guo, Y.; Yan, L.; Wang, H-X.; George, S. J.;  Dapper C. H.; Newton, W. E.; Tanaka, Y.; Yoda, Y.; Cramer S. P.  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 15942–15954

[89]  The HydG Enzyme Generates an Fe(CO)2(CN) Synthon in the Biosynthesis of the FeFe Hydrogenase H-Cluster
Kuchenreuther, J. M.; Myers, W. K.; Stich, T. A.; Suess, D. L. M.; Pelmentschikov, V.; Shiigi, S. A.; Cramer, S. P.; James R. Swartz, J. E.; Britt, R. D.; George, S. J.  Science 2014, 343, 424–427

[88]  Fe-S cluster Biogenesis in Gram-Positive Bacteria: SufU is a Zinc-Dependent Sulfur Transfer Protein

Selbach, B. P.; Chung, A. H.; Scott, A. D.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P.; Dos Santos, P. C. Biochemistry 2014, 53, 152–160
 
[87]  Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) of rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals

Guo, Y.; Brecht, E.; Aznavour, K.; Nix, J. C.; Xiao, Y.; Wang, H.; George, S. J.; Bau, R.; Keable, S.;  Peters, J. W.; Adams, M. W. W.; Jenney, F.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J. Yoda, Y.; Cramer, S. P.  Hyperfine Interact.  2013222, S77–S90
 
[86]  A Radical Intermediate in Tyrosine Scission to the CO and CN− Ligands of [FeFe] Hydrogenase
Kuchenreuther, J. M.; Myers, W. K.; Stich, T. A.; George, S. J.; NejatyJahromy, Y.; Swartz, J. R.; Britt, R. D. Science 2013, 342, 472–475
 
[85]  Characterization of [4Fe-4S] Cluster Vibrations and Structure in Nitrogenase Fe Protein at Three Oxidation Levels via Combined NRVS, EXAFS and DFT Analyses
Mitra, D.; George, S. J.; Guo. Y.; Kamali, S.; Keable, S.; Peters, S. W.; Pelmenschikov, V.; Case, D. A.; Cramer, S. P.  J. Am. Chem. Soc.  2013, 135, 2530−2543
 
[84]  NRVS and EPR Spectroscopy of 57Fe-enriched [FeFe] Hydrogenase Indicate Stepwise Assembly of the H-cluster

Kuchenreuther, J. M.; Guo, Y.; Wang, H.; Myers, W. K.; George, S. J.; Boyke, C. A.; Yoda, Y.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J.; Britt, R. D.; Swartz, J. R.; Cramer, S. P.  Biochemistry, 2013, 52, 818–826
 
[83]  EXAFS and NRVS Reveal a Conformational Distortion of the FeMo‑cofactor in the MoFe Nitrogenase Propargyl Alcohol Complex
George, S. J.; Barney B. M.; Mitra, D.; Guo, Y.; Igarashi, R. Y.; Dean, D. R.; Cramer, S. P.; Seefeldt, L. C.  J. Inorg. Biochem. 2012112, 85–92
 
[82]  Redox, Heme and CO in Enzymatic Catalysis and Regulation (review)

Ragsdale, S. W.; Li, Y.; Bender, G.; Gupta, N.; Kung, Y.; Yan, L.; Scott, A. D.; Stich, T. A.; Doukov, T.; Leichert, L.; Jenkins, P. M.; Bianchetti, C. M.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P.; Britt, R. D.; Jakob, U.; Martens, J. R.; Phillips, G. N.; Drennan, C. L.  Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2012, 40, 501–507
 
[81]  Cell-free H-cluster Synthesis and [FeFe] Hydrogenase Activation: All Five CO and CN Ligands Derive from Tyrosine
Kuchenreuther, J. M.; George, S. J.; Grady-Smith, C. S.; Cramer, S. P.; Swartz, J. R.  PLoS ONE 2011, 6, e20346
 
[80]  The Consequences of Interface Mixing on Organic Photovoltaic Device Characteristics

Huang, D. M.; Maugera, S. A; Friedrich, S.; George, S. J.; Dumitriu-LaGrange D.; Yoona, S.; Moule, A. J.  Adv. Funct. Mater., 2011, 21, 1657–1665
 
[79]  Photolysis of Hi-CO Nitrogenase – Observation of a Plethora of Distinct CO Species using Infrared Spectroscopy

Yan, L.; Dapper, C. H.; George, S. J.; Wang, H-X.; Mitra, D.; Dong, W.; Newton, W. E.; Cramer, S. P.  Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2011, 2011, 2064-2074
 
[78]  Steric Control of the Hi-CO MoFe Nitrogenase Complex Revealed by Stopped-Flow Infra-red Spectroscopy
Yang, Z.-Y.; Seefeldt, L. C.; Dean, D. R.; Cramer, S. P.; George, S. J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 272-275
 
[77]  High-yield expression of heterologous [FeFe] hydrogenases in Escherichia coli 

Kuchenreuther, J. M.; Grady-Smith, C.S.; Bingham, A. S.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P.; Swartz, J. R. PLoS ONE 2010, 5, e15491
 
[76]  Synchrotron X-ray analyses indicate phosphate-bound gadolinium in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
George, S. J.; Webb, S. M.; Abraham, J. L.; Cramer, S. P. Brit. J. Dermatol.2010163, 1077-1081
 
[75]  [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Maturation: HydG-Catalyzed Synthesis of Carbon Monoxide

Shepard, E. M.; Duffus, B. R.; George, S. J.; McGlynn, S. E.; Challand, M. R.; Swanson, K. D.; Roach, P. L.; Cramer, S. P.; Peters, J. W.; Broderick, J. B J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 9247–9249
 
[74]  Synthesis of the 2Fe subcluster of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase H cluster on the HydF scaffold 

Shepard, E. M.; McGlynn, S. E.; Bueling, A. L.; Grady-Smith, C. S.; George, S. J.; Winslow, M. A.; Cramer, S. P.; Peters, J. W.; Broderick, J. B,  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010, 107, 10448-10453
 
[73]  A Star-Shaped Heteronuclear (CrMn3II)-Mn-III Species and Its Precise Electronic and Magnetic Structure: Spin Frustration Studied by X-Ray Spectroscopic, Magnetic, and Theoretical Methods 

Prinz, M.; Kuepper, K.; Taubitz, C.; Raekers, M.; Khanra, S.; Biswas, B.; Weyhermuller, T.; Uhlarz, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Schnack, J.; Postnikov, A. V.; Schroder, C.; George, S. J.; Neumann, M.; Chaudhuri, P.  Inorg. Chem., 2010, 49, 2093-2102
 
[72]  Molybdenum Trafficking for Nitrogen Fixation

Hernandez, J. A.; George, S. J.; Rubio, L. M.  Biochemistry, 2009, 48, 9711-9721
 
[71]  Molybdenum X-ray absorption edges from 200 - 20,000 eV, The benefits of soft x-ray spectroscopy for chemical speciation

George, S. J.; Drury, O. B.; Fu, J.; Friedrich, S.; Doonan, C. J.; George, G. N.; White, J. M.; Young, C. G.; Cramer, S. P.  J. Inorg. Biochem., 2009, 103, 157–167
 
[70]  Star-shaped molecule of MnII4O6 Core with a St = 10 high-spin State.  A theoretical and experimental study with XPS, XMCD, and other magnetic methods.

Khanra, S.; Kuepper, K.; Weyhermüller, T.; Prinz, M.; Raekers, M.; Voget, S.; Postnikov, A. V.;  de Groot, F. M. F.; George, S. J.; Coldea, M.; Neumann, M.; Chaudhuri, P.  Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 4605-4617
 
[69]  EXAFS and NRVS reveal that NifB-co, a FeMo-co precursor, comprises a 6Fe core with an interstitial light atom
George, S. J.; Igarashi, R. Y.; Xiao, Y.; Hernandez, J. A.; Demuez, M.; Zhao, D.; Yoda, Y.; Ludden, P. W.; Rubio, L. M.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 5673-5680
 
[68]  X-ray photochemistry in iron complexes from Fe(0) to Fe(IV) - Can a bug become a feature?
George, S. J.; Fu, J.; Guo, Y.; Drury, O. B.; Friedrich, S.; Rauchfuss, T.; Volkers, P. I.; Peters, J. C.; Scott, V.; Brown, S. D.; Thomas, C. M.; Cramer, S. P.  Inorg. Chim. Acta 2008, 361, 1157-1165
 
[67]  Protein voltammetry and spectroscopy: integrating approaches
Male, L.; Marritt, S. J.; Berks, B. C.; Cheesman, M. R.; van Wonderen, J. H.; George, S. J.; Butt, J. N. Theor. Chem. Acc. 2008, 119, 107-111
 
[66]  The superconducting high-resolution soft X-ray spectrometer at the advanced biological and environmental X-ray facility
Friedrich, S.; Drury, O. B.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P.  Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 2007, 582, 187-189
 
[65]  Activation of the cytochrome cd(1) nitrite reductase from Paracoccus pantotrophus - Reaction of oxidized enzyme with substrate drives a ligand switch at heme c
van Wonderen, J. H.; Knight, C.; Oganesyan, V. S.; George, S. J.; Zumft, W. G.; Cheesman, M. R.  J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 28207-28215
 
[64]  Identification of a Mo-Fe-S cluster on NifEN by Mo K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure
George, S. J.; Igarashi, R. Y.; Piamonteze, C.; Soboh, B.; Cramer, S. P.; Rubio, L. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007129, 3060-3061
 
[63]  Spectroscopic and computational studies of reduction of the metal versus the tetrapyrrole ring of coenzyme F-430 from methyl-coenzyme M reductase
Dey, M.; Kunz, R. C.; van Heuvelen, K. M.; Craft, J. L.; Horng, Y. C.; Tang, Q.; Bocian, D. F.; George, S. J.; Brunold, T. C.; Ragsdale, S. W. Biochemistry 2006, 45, 11915-11933
 
[62]  How nitrogenase shakes - Initial information about P-cluster and FeMo-cofactor normal modes from nuclear resonance vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS)
Xiao, Y. M.; Fisher, K.; Smith, M. C.; Newton, W. E.; Case, D. A.; George, S. J.; Wang, H. X.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J. Y.; Yoda, Y.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 7608-7612
 
[61]  The advantages of soft X-rays and cryogenic spectrometers for measuring chemical speciation by X-ray spectroscopy
Drury, O. B.; Friedrich, S.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 2006, 559, 728-730
 
[60]  Normal mode analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin via nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and resonance Raman spectroscopy
Xiao, Y. M.; Wang, H.; George, S. J.; Smith, M. C.; Adams, M. W. W.; Jenney, F. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J. O.; Yoda, Y.; Dey, A.; Solomon, E. I.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 14596-14606
 
[59]  EPR and infrared spectroscopic evidence that a kinetically competent paramagnetic intermediate is formed when acetyl-coenzyme A synthase reacts with CO
George, S. J.; Seravalli, J.; Ragsdale, S. W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13500-13501
 
[58]  Normal mode analysis of FeCl4- and Fe2S2Cl42- via vibrational Mössbauer, resonance Raman, and FT-IR spectroscopies
Smith, M. C.; Xiao, Y. M.; Wang, H. X.; George, S. J.; Coucouvanis, D.; Koutmos, M.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Zhao, J. Y.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 5562-5570
 
[57]  High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy of molybdenum compounds
Doonan, C. J.; Zhang, L. M.; Young, C. G.; George, S. J.; Deb, A.; Bergmann, U.; George, G. N.; Cramer, S. P. Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 2579-2581
 
[56]  X-ray magnetic circular dichroism - a high energy probe of magnetic properties (review)
Funk, T.; Deb, A.; George, S. J.; Wang, H. X.; Cramer, S. P. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2005, 249, 3-30
 
[55]  Reductive activation of nitrate reductases
Field, S. J.; Thornton, N. P.; Anderson, L. J.; Gates, A. J.; Reilly, A.; Jepson, B. J. N.; Richardson, D. J.; George, S. J.; Cheesman, M. R.; Butt, J. N. Dalton Trans. 2005, 3580-3586
 
[54]  Hydrogen-induced activation of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Allochromatium vinosum as studied by stopped-flow infrared spectroscopy
Kurkin, S.; George, S. J.; Thorneley, R. N. F.; Albracht, S. P. J. Biochemistry 2004, 43, 6820-6831
 
[53]  Reactions of H2, CO, and O2 with active [NiFe]-Hydrogenase from Allochromatium vinosum. A stopped-flow infrared study
George, S. J.; Kurkin, S.; Thorneley, R. N. F.; Albracht, S. P. J. Biochemistry 200443, 6808-6819
 
[52]  Stopped-flow Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of nitromethane oxidation by the diiron(IV) intermediate of methane monooxygenase
Muthusamy, M.; Ambundo, E. A.; George, S. J.; Lippard, S. J.; Thorneley, R. N. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 11150-11151
 
[51]  A two-faced molecule offers NO explanation: the proximal binding of nitric oxide to haem
Lawson, D. M.; Stevenson, C. E. M.; Andrew, C. R.; George, S. J.; Eady, R. R. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2003, 31, 553-557
 
[50]  The di-iron subsite of all-iron hydrogenase: Mechanism of cyanation of a synthetic {2Fe3S} - Carbonyl assembly
George, S. J.; Cui, Z.; Razavet, M.; Pickett, C. J., Chem. Eur. J. 2002, 8, 4037-4046
 
[49]  Transient FTIR spectroelectrochemical and stopped-flow detection of a mixed valence {Fe(I)-Fe(II)} bridging carbonyl intermediate with structural elements and spectroscopic characteristics of the di-iron sub-site of all-iron hydrogenase
Razavet, M.; Borg, S. J.; George, S. J.; Best, S. P.; Fairhurst, S. A.; Pickett, C. J., Chem. Comm. 2002, 700-701
 
[48]  Nitrogenase mechanism: can old lags teach us new tricks? (book chapter / conference proceeding)
Thorneley, R. N. F.; Angove, H.; Ashby, G. A.; Durrant, M.C.; Fairhurst, S. A.; George, S. J.; Hallenbeck, P. C.; Sinclair, A.; Tolland, J. D., in Nitrogen Fixation: Global Perspectives.; Finan, T. M.; O’Brian, M. R.; Layzell, D. B.; Vessey, J. K.; Newton. W. E., Eds.; CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. 2002, pp. 25-29    
 
[47]  Six- to five-coordinate heme-nitrosyl conversion in cytochrome c' and its relevance to guanylate cyclase
Andrew, C. R.; George, S. J.; Lawson, D. M.; Eady, R. R. Biochemistry 2002, 41, 2353-2360
 
[46]  Stopped-flow infrared spectroscopy reveals a six-coordinate intermediate in the formation of the proximally bound five-coordinate NO adduct of cytochrome c'
George, S. J.; Andrew, C. R.; Lawson, D. M.; Thorneley, R. N. F.; Eady, R. R. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9683-9684
 
[45]  Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy reveals a stable ferric heme-NO intermediate in the reaction of Paracoccus pantotrophus cytochrome cd(1) nitrite reductase with nitrite
George, S. J.; Allen, J. W. A.; Ferguson, S. J.; Thorneley, R. N. F. J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 33231-33237
 
[44]  Time resolved infrared spectroscopy of functioning nitrogenase (book chapter)
Thorneley, R. N. F.; George, S. J., in Prokaryotic nitrogen fixation: a model system for analysis of a biological process.; E.W., T., Ed.; Horizon Scientific Press: Wymondham, UK., 2000, pp. 81-99
 
[43]  Stopped-Flow Infra-Red Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide Binding to Functioning Nitrogenase  (book chapter / conference proceeding)
Thorneley, R. N. F.; Ashby, G. A.; George, S. J., in Nitrogen Fixation: From Molecules to Crop Productivity; Pedrosa, F. O., Hungria, M., Yates, G. and Newton, W. E., Ed.; Kluwer: The Netherlands, 2000, pp. 39-40
 
[42]  Quantitation of metal ion and DNA junction binding to the Holliday junction endonuclease Cce1
Kvaratskhelia, M.; George, S. J.; Cooper, A.; White, M. F. Biochemistry 1999, 38, 16613-16619
 
[41]  Reversible alkaline inactivation of lignin peroxidase involves the release of both the distal and proximal site calcium ions and bis-histidine co-ordination of the haem
George, S. J.; Kvaratskhelia, M.; Dilworth, M. J.; Thorneley, R. N. F. Biochem. J. 1999, 344, 237-244
 
[40]  A novel, general method of analyzing magnetic circular dichroism spectra and magnetization curves of high-spin metal ions: Application to the protein oxidized rubredoxin, Desulfovibrio gigas
Oganesyan, V. S.; George, S. J.; Cheesman, M. R.; Thomson, A. J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 110, 762-777
 
[39]  The structure of carbonyl horseradish peroxidase: spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the carbon monoxide complexes of His-42 -> Leu and Arg-38 -> Leu mutants
Rodriguez-Lopez, J. N.; George, S. J.; Thorneley, R. N. F.  J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 1998, 3, 44-52
 
[38]  Salicylic acid is a reducing substrate and not an effective inhibitor of ascorbate peroxidase
Kvaratskhelia, M.; George, S. J.; Thorneley, R. N. F. J. Biol. Chem. 1997, 272, 20998-21001
 
[37]  Time-resolved binding of carbon monoxide to nitrogenase monitored by stopped-flow infrared spectroscopy
George, S. J.; Ashby, G. A.; Wharton, C. W.; Thorneley, R. N. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 6450-6451
 
[36]  Iron L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of myoglobin complexes and photolysis products
Wang, H. X.; Peng, G.; Miller, L. M.; Scheuring, E. M.; George, S. J.; Chance, M. R.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 4921-4928
 
[35]  Anionic tobacco peroxidase is active at extremely low pH: Veratryl alcohol oxidation with a pH optimum of 1.8
Gazarian, I. G.; Lagrimini, L. M.; George, S. J.; Thorneley, R. N. F. Biochem. J. 1996, 320, 369-372
 
[34]  Fluorescence Detected Soft XAS and MCD - Applications to Bioinorganic Systems
Cramer, S. P.; Peng, G.; Christiansen, J.; Chen, J.; van Elp, J.; George, S. J.; Young, A. T.  J. Electron Spectrosc., 1996, 78, 225-229
 
[33]  Manganese L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of manganese catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum and mixed valence manganese complexes
Grush, M. M.; Chen, J.; Stemmler, T. L.; George, S. J.; Ralston, C. Y.; Stibrany, R. T.; Gelasco, A.; Christou, G.; Gorun, S. M.; Penner-Hahn, J. E.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 65-69
 
[32]  Identification of the iron-sulfur clusters in a ferredoxin from the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius - evidence for a reduced [3Fe-4S] cluster with pH dependent electronic properties
Breton, J. L.; Duff, J. L. C.; Butt, J. N.; Armstrong, F. A.; George, S. J.; Petillot, Y.; Forest, E.; Schafer, G.; Thomson, A. J.  Eur. J. Biochem. 1995, 233, 937-946
 
[31]  Biological x-ray spectroscopy on 3rd-generation synchrotron radiation sources
Ralston, C. Y.; Chen, J.; Peng, G.; George, S. J.; van Elp, J.; Cramer, S. P.  Physica B, 1995, 209, 203-208
 
[30]  Soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism on a paramagnetic bioinorganic system

 (book chapter / conference proceeding)
Van Elp, J.; George, S. J.; Peng, G.; Searle, B. G.; Zhou, Z. H.; Adams, M. W. W.; Chen, C. T.; Cramer, S. P. Proceedings  SPIE 19942010, 181-189
 
[29]  Soft x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in biology (book chapter)
George, S. J.; van Elp, J.; Chen, J.; Peng, G.; Mitra-Kirtley, S.; Mullins, O. C.; Cramer, S. P., in Synchrotron Radiation in Biosciences; Chance, B., Ed.; Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1994, pp. 313-332
 
[28]  Soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism - a probe for studying paramagnetic bioinorganic systems
Van Elp, J.; George, S. J.; Chen, J.; Peng, G.; Chen, C. T.; Tjeng, L. H.; Meigs, G.; Lin, H. J.; Zhou, Z. H.; Adams, M. W. W.; Searle, B. G.; Cramer, S. P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993, 90, 9664-9667
 
[27]  Iron EXAFS of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase Mo-Fe and V-Fe proteins
Chen, J.; Christiansen, J.; Tittsworth, R. C.; Hales, B. J.; George, S. J.; Coucouvanis, D.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993115, 5509-5515
 
[26]  Copper L-edge spectral studies - a direct experimental probe of the ground-state covalency in the blue copper site in plastocyanin
George, S. J.; Lowery, M. D.; Solomon, E. I.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993115, 2968-2969
 
[25]  Extended x-ray absorption fine structure and L-edge spectroscopy of nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein
Chen, J.; Christiansen, J.; George, S. J.; Tittsworth, R. C.; Hales, B. J.; Alahmad, S.; Coucouvanis, D.; Campobasso, N.; Bolin, J.; Cramer, S. P., in Molybdenum Enzymes, Cofactors, and Model Systems; Steifel, E. I., Coucouvanis, D. and Newton, W. E., Ed.; American Chemical Society: Washington D.C., 1993, pp. 231-242
 
[24]  Variable temperature magnetic circular dichroism
Thomson, A. J.; Cheesman, M. R.; George, S. J., in Meth. Enzymol. 1993, 225, 199-232
 
[23]  Determination of the nitrogen chemical structures in petroleum asphaltenes using XANES spectroscopy
Mitra-Kirtley, S.; Mullins, O. C.; van Elp, J.; George, S. J.; Chen, J.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 252-258
 
[22]  X-ray absorption spectroscopy of nitrogenase MoFe protein (book chapter / conference proceeding)
Chen, J.; Christiansen, J.; George, S. J.; Tittsworth, R. C.; Hales, B. J.; Campobasso, N.; Bolin, J.; Cramer, S. P., in Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Techniques to Materials Science; Perry, S. L., D., S. N., Stockbauer, R. L., d’Amico, K. L. and Terminello, L. J., Ed.; Materials Research Society; Vol. 307, 1993
 
[21]  Nitrogen chemical structure in DNA and related molecules by x-ray absorption spectroscopy
Mitra-Kirtley, S.; Mullins, O. C.; Chen, J.; van Elp, J.; George, S. J.; Chen, C. T.; O'Halloran, T.; Cramer, S. P. Biochim. Biophys. Act 1992, 1132, 249-254
 
[20]  Soft x-ray spectroscopy of metalloproteins using fluorescence detection
Cramer, S. P.; Chen, J.; George, S. J.; van Elp, J.; Moore, J.; Tench, O.; Colaresi, J.; Yocum, M.; Mullins, O. C.; Chen, C. T.  Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 1992, 319, 285-289
 
[19]  L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin
George, S. J.; van Elp, J.; Chen, J.; Ma, Y.; Chen, C. T.; Park, J. B.; Adams, M. W. W.; Searle, B. G.; Degroot, F. M. F.; Fuggle, J. C.; Cramer, S. P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 4426-4427
 
[18]  Identification and characterization of zinc binding sites in protein kinase C
Hubbard, S. R.; Bishop, W. R.; Kirschmeier, P.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P.; Hendrickson, W. A. Science 1991, 254, 1776-1779
 
[17]  Iron-sulfur clusters in electron-transfer, catalysis and control
Thomson, A. J.; Breton, J.; George, S. J.; Butt, J. N.; Armstrong, F. A.; Hatchikian, E. C. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 199119, 594-599
 
[16]  Investigation of metal-ion uptake reactivities of [3Fe-4S] clusters in proteins - Voltammetry of coadsorbed ferredoxin-aminocyclitol films at graphite electrodes and spectroscopic identification of transformed clusters
Butt, J. N.; Armstrong, F. A.; Breton, J.; George, S. J.; Thomson, A. J.; Hatchikian, E. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113, 6663-6670
 
[15]  Fluorescence XAFS detectors for 0.3 - 20 keV  (book chapter / conference proceeding)
Cramer, S. P.; George, S. J.; Kraner, H.; Rogers, L.; Rescia, S.; Radeka, V.; Yocum, M.; Colaresi, J.; Tench, O.; Mullins, O. C., in X-ray Absorption Fine Structure; Hasnain, S. S., Ed.; Ellis Harwood: New York, 1991, pp. 640-645
 
[14]  A comparative study of the low-temperature Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectra of ferredoxins containing [4Fe-4S] and [4Fe-4Se] clusters
George, S. J.; Thomson, A. J.; Crabtree, D. E.; Meyer, J.; Moulis, J. M. New J. Chem. 1991, 15, 455-465
 
[13]  Cytochrome-c'' isolated from Methylophilus methylotrophus - an example of bis-Histidine coordinated Fe3+ heme, with near-perpendicular orientation of the ligands
Berry, M. J.; George, S. J.; Thomson, A. J.; Santos, H.; Turner, D. L. Biochem. J. 1990, 270, 413-417
 
[12]  Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of ferredoxins
Thomson, A. J.; George, S. J.; Armstrong, F. A.; Hatchikian, E. C.; Yates, M. G.  Pure App. Chem. 1990, 62, 1071-1074
 
[11]  Evidence for reversible multiple redox transformations of [3Fe-4S] clusters
Armstrong, F. A.; Butt, J. N.; George, S. J.; Hatchikian, E. C.; Thomson, A. J.  FEBS Lett. 1989, 259, 15-18
 
[10]  Electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the conversion of the 7Fe into the 8Fe Form of ferredoxin III from Desulfovibrio africanus - identification of a [4Fe-4S] cluster with one non-cysteine ligand
George, S. J.; Armstrong, F. A.; Hatchikian, E. C.; Thomson, A. J. Biochem. J. 1989, 264, 275-284
 
[9]  Electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the 7Fe form of ferredoxin III from Desulfovibrio africanus
Armstrong, F. A.; George, S. J.; Cammack, R.; Hatchikian, E. C.; Thomson, A. J. Biochem. J. 1989, 264, 265-273
 
[8]  NMR, EPR and magnetic-CD studies of cytochrome-f - identity of the heme axial ligands
Rigby, S. E. J.; Moore, G. R.; Gray, J. C.; Gadsby, P. M. A.; George, S. J.; Thomson, A. J. Biochem. J. 1988, 256, 571-577
 
[7]  X-ray crystallography and the spectroscopic imperative - the story of the [3Fe-4S] clusters (review)
George, G. N.; George, S. J. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 198813, 369-370
 
[6]  Direct electrochemistry in the characterization of redox proteins - novel properties of Azotobacter 7Fe ferredoxin
Armstrong, F. A.; George, S. J.; Thomson, A. J.; Yates, M. G. FEBS Lett. 1988234, 107-110
 
[5]  Redox properties of Azotobacter 7Fe ferredoxin (review)
Armstrong, F. A.; George, S. J.; Thomson, A. J.; Yates, M. G. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1988, 16, 840-842
 
[4]  Magnetic circular dichroism of iron-sulphur proteins
George, S. J. PhD Thesis, University of East Anglia, 1986
 
[3]  A study of one of the iron-sulfur clusters in oxidized hydrogenase from Megasphaera elsdenii by Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
Thomson, A. J.; George, S. J.; Richards, A. J. M.; Robinson, A. E.; Grande, H. J.; Veeger, C.; van Dijk, C.  Biochem. J. 1985, 227, 333-336
 
[2]  Azotobacter chroococcum 7Fe ferredoxin - 2 pH dependent forms of the reduced 3Fe cluster and its conversion to a 4Fe cluster
George, S. J.; Richards, A. J. M.; Thomson, A. J.; Yates, M. G.  Biochem. J. 1984, 224, 247-251
 
[1]  Spectroscopic characterization of ferredoxin I and ferredoxin II from Desulfovibrio africanus  

Hatchikian, E. C.; Cammack, R.; Patil, D. S.; Robinson, A. E.; Richards, A. J. M.; George, S. J.; Thomson, A. J. Biochim. Biophys. Act. 1984, 784, 40-47


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